Nucleotide extension genotyping by high-resolution melting.
One limitation of small amplicon melting is the inability to genotype certain nearest-neighbor symmetric variations without manipulating the sample. We have developed a method for these exceptions: a high-resolution melting single nucleotide extension assay. Single nucleotide extension was performed in a new instrument, the LightScanner 32 (LS32), which uses capillary reaction tubes and is capable of real-time PCR and sequential high-resolution melting of 32 samples. Asymmetric PCR used Platinum Taq and LC Green Plus in the master mix for target amplification. Dideoxynucleotides and extension oligonucleotides were sequestered in the tube cap and added post-PCR, maintaining a closed system. One dideoxynucleotides was used per capillary tube. Samples were cycled five times to incorporate dideoxynucleotides into the extension products using ThermoSequenase, followed by high-resolution melting. Single nucleotide polymorphisms from the RET proto-oncogene (n = 7), hemochromatosis (HFE, n = 30), coagulation factor 2 (F2, n = 29), coagulation factor 5 (F5, n = 30), and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR, n = 60) genes were genotyped. The DNA melting profiles identified the target single nucleotide polymorphisms by the lowest melting temperature transition. All genotypes had a distinctive melting pattern. The method was 100% concordant with samples previously genotyped at HFE, MTHFR, and F2 and 90% concordant with F5. F5 discordants were genotyped correctly by redesigning the assay. Our results demonstrate that although single nucleotide polymorphisms can be successfully differentiated using this methodology, the method requires careful optimization.