The ever-expanding conundrum of primary osteoporosis: aetiopathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment.
In recent years, as knowledge regarding the etiopathogenetic mechanisms of bone involvement characterizing many diseases has increased and diagnostic techniques evaluating bone health have progressively improved, the problem of low bone mass/quality in children and adolescents has attracted more and more attention, and the body evidence that there are groups of children who may be at risk of osteoporosis has grown. This interest is linked to an increased understanding that a higher peak bone mass (PBM) may be one of the most important determinants affecting the age of onset of osteoporosis in adulthood. This review provides an updated picture of bone pathophysiology and characteristics in children and adolescents with paediatric osteoporosis, taking into account the major causes of primary osteoporosis (PO) and evaluating the major aspects of bone densitometry in these patients. Finally, some options for the treatment of PO will be briefly discussed.