Therapeutic approaches and advances in pediatric stroke.
Evidence-based therapeutic interventions for pediatric ischemic cerebrovascular disease are beginning to emerge. The primary therapeutic target is usually the pathological prothrombotic disturbance that underlies the majority of pediatric stroke. A battle between anticoagulation and anti-platelet therapies continues to provide controversy and is the inspiration for upcoming randomized trials. Supportive care and neuroprotective strategies are an important consideration in children with stroke. Attempts to determine the safety of acute thrombolytic interventions are also underway. Finally, unique medical and surgical treatments for specific diseases leading to stroke in children continue to evolve. After briefly summarizing the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and outcomes of ischemic strokes in children, treatment approaches and alternatives will be reviewed in detail with emphasis placed on current areas of controversy and future directions for clinical research.